Organization System of Subak in Tanah Lot PDF Print E-mail

 Agriculture in Bali using irrigation system known as Subak. Subak is a special community-based organizations that manage irrigation systems used in the fields planting rice fits in Bali, Indonesia. Subak is usually a temple called Pura Uluncarik, or Pura Bedugul, specially built by farmers and dedicated to the goddess of prosperity and fertility goddess Sri. Irrigation system is governed by an indigenous leader who also is a farmer in Bali. Similarly, rice irrigation system in the Tanah Lot, where a small part of Tanah Lot tourism area there is also rice fields are still active in working by the owner.
In detail, Subak used also as an effort to maintain harmonious relations with other living creatures as pests and insects, rice farmers in ancient times used not to kill them, but they perform a ritual known as nanglukmerana ( "avoid outbreaks of pests ceremony"). This ritual is still practiced to this day by the farmers of Bali. Philosophical meaning of this ritual is that it does not kill any creature that can be possible but only to protect crops from pest attack. 

In some places, many subak was used to perform "cremation ceremony rat" as a form of ritual nangluk miserable, with a prayer for the blessing of God so that no insects will attack their crops. Important rituals that you need to mention here is what is called Tumpek uduh ( "day of ceremony flora") and Tumpek cage ( "day fauna ceremony"). Each ritual is performed every 210 days on Saturday based on Balinese calendar. These rituals symbolize the preservation of biodiversity Balinese rice farmers.

Subak led by a Pekaseh, whose members also formed subak informal group called Sekaa, to facilitate certain work activities in the field by working in a particular area and specific activities. For example: Sekaa numbeg (for land cultivation), Sekaa jelinjingan (for treatment of water tunnel), Sekaa sambang (for water and pest surveillance), Sekaa mamulih (for seed plantation), Sekaa majukut (for plant surveillance), Sekaa manyi (for harvest work), Sekaa bleseng (to bring the rice to the barn).

Pekaseh responsible for neglect of irrigation management in the region subak, to schedule the cultivation cycle and to regulate subak ceremony. He is supported by several assistants, such as deputy head of subak (petajuh), secretary (penyarikan), treasurer (or juru petengen mercury), messenger (kasinoman), special assistant (saye) and head of the sub - group subak. Subak divided into sub-groups, called Munduk.  Munduk may have an inlet separate from the main canal subak. A Munduk usually consists of 20-40 the average farmer. Each led by a Munduk pengliman who received direct orders from pekaseh and is responsible for all matters relating to Munduk.

As a sub-group of subak, which Munduk must follow the rules and regulations subak. However, certain organizations and issues of water management can be decided autonomously Munduk level. The Munduk is an important dimension in subak. Cultivation everyday decisions made at this level and provide fine-tuning of the subak water and crop management - did not always follow the law subak by doing this. The relationship between subak and Munduk is to facilitate top-down and bottom-up flow of information.

Subak water system consists of many components such as empelan (dam) serves as a reservoir of water, aungan (tunnel), telabah (main river), tembuku aya (primary inlet), telabah gede (secondary drainage), tembuku gede (secondary inlet), telabah pamaron (tertiary waterways), tembuku pamaron (tertiary inlet), telabah penyacah (quaternary waterways), tembuku penyacah (quaternary inlet), tembuku pengalapan (individual inlet), the rope Kunda (individual waterways). Subak water system also has a complementary part of such drain (red), pekiuh (overflow), titi (bridge), Jengkuwung (small tunnel), abangan (off-ground tunnel), my map (waterfall structure), and telepus (siphon ).

Bali general philosophy guiding the principle of the system subak Tri Hita Karana emphasizes that happiness which can only be attained if the Creator (God), the people (farmers) and nature (the rice fields) live in harmony with one another. Based on this philosophy is the ceremony which is an important part of the cycle of rice cultivation.